Monday, June 29, 2020
Factors affecting Women's Success in Management (Research Paper Sample) Content: NameInstitutionProfessorDateFactors affecting Womens Success in Management Women continue to enter professional and managerial positions at a rate comparable to that of men. In the United States for instance, the number of women entering professional management ranks has doubled in the last three decades. Notably though, women are still underrepresented in senior levels. They constitute approximately five percent of all Fortune-500 CEOs (Mattis 376). The case is the same in Europe where women constitute about three percent of publicly quoted CEOs. This underrepresentation necessitates for an evaluation and analysis of factors that influence Women Managers success, which is the focus of this paper. Success in management refers to the ability to advance and ascend the corporate ladder. The society has broad societal factors that promote stereotypes and assumptions that challenge women leadership abilities. For instance, the media promotes gender stereotypes through the use images that depict men as the management and leadership experts. A woman raised in such a society may easily doubt their leadership abilities (Babcock 127). Further, the media perpetuates stereotypes by depicting female executives as being anomalies. Images show women as home caretakers and younger than men, which reinforces the misconception that women are incompetent for management positions (Babcock 128). Clearly, social norms often promoted by the media have significant effect on the success of women in managerial positions. Other than the societal level factors, there are also systemic organizational level barriers to the advancement and development of women. Women in leadership position are held to high performance standards relative to men. They are tasked with roles and responsibilities with a significant risk of failure (Mattis 379). Further, women in leadership positions may not get opportunities for development through stretch assignments. This limits the womens oppor tunity to progress and success in management (Powel 64). In addition, the work versus family conflict has significant influence on womens success. Some women may feel unable to balance family life with work at managerial positions. Nonetheless, evaluators may deny promotion because of the perception that a female candidate may not adequately balance the work-family life. There are also individual level factors that affect womens success in leadership and managerial positions. Researchers have observed that some women lack the confidence needed in managerial positions, which affects their success once in those positions (Powel 82). An individuals sense of reduced self-efficacy highly depends on the social context with few role models. The impact is more in high gender professional stereotypes such as the male dominated roles like leadership (Babcock 132). For instance, women may not promote themselves. When successful, they credit the team but blame themselves when they fail. Another personal level fact is communication style. Many women feel that they are less likeable, socially unattractive, and less hirable if they assert themselves and negotiate for their int... Factors affecting WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Success in Management - 550 Words Factors affecting Women's Success in Management (Research Paper Sample) Content: NameInstitutionProfessorDateFactors affecting Womens Success in Management Women continue to enter professional and managerial positions at a rate comparable to that of men. In the United States for instance, the number of women entering professional management ranks has doubled in the last three decades. Notably though, women are still underrepresented in senior levels. They constitute approximately five percent of all Fortune-500 CEOs (Mattis 376). The case is the same in Europe where women constitute about three percent of publicly quoted CEOs. This underrepresentation necessitates for an evaluation and analysis of factors that influence Women Managers success, which is the focus of this paper. Success in management refers to the ability to advance and ascend the corporate ladder. The society has broad societal factors that promote stereotypes and assumptions that challenge women leadership abilities. For instance, the media promotes gender stereotypes through the use images that depict men as the management and leadership experts. A woman raised in such a society may easily doubt their leadership abilities (Babcock 127). Further, the media perpetuates stereotypes by depicting female executives as being anomalies. Images show women as home caretakers and younger than men, which reinforces the misconception that women are incompetent for management positions (Babcock 128). Clearly, social norms often promoted by the media have significant effect on the success of women in managerial positions. Other than the societal level factors, there are also systemic organizational level barriers to the advancement and development of women. Women in leadership position are held to high performance standards relative to men. They are tasked with roles and responsibilities with a significant risk of failure (Mattis 379). Further, women in leadership positions may not get opportunities for development through stretch assignments. This limits the womens oppor tunity to progress and success in management (Powel 64). In addition, the work versus family conflict has significant influence on womens success. Some women may feel unable to balance family life with work at managerial positions. Nonetheless, evaluators may deny promotion because of the perception that a female candidate may not adequately balance the work-family life. There are also individual level factors that affect womens success in leadership and managerial positions. Researchers have observed that some women lack the confidence needed in managerial positions, which affects their success once in those positions (Powel 82). An individuals sense of reduced self-efficacy highly depends on the social context with few role models. The impact is more in high gender professional stereotypes such as the male dominated roles like leadership (Babcock 132). For instance, women may not promote themselves. When successful, they credit the team but blame themselves when they fail. Another personal level fact is communication style. Many women feel that they are less likeable, socially unattractive, and less hirable if they assert themselves and negotiate for their int...
Tuesday, May 26, 2020
What if everyone was made to pay for their wrongdoings at every instance? Well, if that were to be the case, no one would be free from judgment because everyone makes mistakes. In Ã¢â¬Å"EclipsedÃ¢â¬ , Brogan brings to light the pretentious acts of so-called holier-than-thou people. She tells a story about the struggles of women in a society that treated them as evil, bringing to light the fact that everyone in this world needs to re-evaluate their moral standings. One of the main characters, Cathy comes back from a failed escape attempt. The rest of the women are not that surprised. It was as if they had given up knowing that they would be caught. But Cathy has been relentless in risking it all just to escape. Hence, this represents her desperation to be free from that prison-like Magdalen Laundry. These women were once free, but have had their humanity stripped from them all in the name of judgement for their sins. But who gave people the right to place judgment on others in suc h a dehumanizing way? Ã¢â¬Å"Spare the rod and spoil the childÃ¢â¬ , but first one has to take out the log in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s eye before thinking about the speck in their brotherÃ¢â¬â¢s. Brogan succeeds in showing the fact that these women were human, and still had human feelings, desires and actions. But they were being condemned due to their diversion from the societal norm in one aspect of their lives. Interpersonal relations was like a taboo in the Magdalen Laundry. Mother Victoria states, Ã¢â¬Å"Give these letters out at tea-break,Show MoreRelatedNarrative Consequences Of Trade In Mel Gibsons Apocalypto1207 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestime, energy, and resources to acquire valuable commodities to trade for a very long time. This quintessentially human behavior bolsters social bonds in ways that would have been a great boon to the survival chances of an individual or tribe. In the movie Apocalypto , the early minutes depict two tribes of people coming into contact for the first time. The potentially deadly levels of tension were eased with a simple greeting from an elder tribesman and an exchange of boar meat for fish. Narrative elementsRead MoreComparing Bram StokerÃ¢â¬â¢s Dracula and the 1972 Film Blacula Essay1917 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesnot only a classic story of men and monsters, but a dramatic reactionary work to the perceived threats to Victorian society in nineteenth century England. In modern times there have been many film adaptations of the novel, each developing a unique analysis or criticism of the literary text within the framework of the society and time period in which it was created. The 1972 film Blacula is one of the most culturally specific variations on the story of Dracula, and highlights many of the themes andRead MoreCase Analysis: Mobile Marketing at Adidas3410 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesCase Analysis Mobile Marketing at adidas March 15, 2010 [THE BRAND IN THE HAND Ã¢â¬â GROUP 6] Page |1 1. What is adidasÃ¢â¬â¢ position in the athletic shoe market? How does the brand seem to be doing in this market? Position: the position of adidas has transferred from Ã¢â¬Å"leading supplier of soccer footwear worldwideÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"leading sport brandÃ¢â¬ . Adidas was founded in Germany in 1920. In 1995, it became a public company as well as the leading supplier of soccer footwear due to its great performanceRead MoreFailures of International Mergers and Acquisitions8716 Words Ã |Ã 35 PagesAcquisitions 6 Problems faced in Cross Border Mergers and Acquisitions 7 Sonys Acquisition of Columbia Pictures 8 Sony 8 Columbia Pictures 9 Analysis: Star Framework 9 Fig: Choice of Entry Mode 15 Failure of the Acquisition 15 Reasons for the Failure 16 Merger between Daimler-Benz and Chrysler Corporation 18 Daimler-Benz 18 Chrysler Corporation 18 Analysis: Star Framework 19 Reasons for the Merger 22 Failure of the Merger 23 Reasons for failure 23 Culture Clash 23 Mismanagement 25 LiteratureRead MoreInfluence of Hollywood films on the moral Values of Nigerian youths5511 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesFilms began stringing scenes together to tell stories. Other techniques such as camera movement were used as a more effective way to portray a film. The next major development in film was introduction of colors. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was adopted gradually. According to Olaleye, (2007), the public were relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black and white. But as color processes improved and became as affordable as blackRead MoreSalt Sugar Fat dialectical journal Essay4963 Words Ã |Ã 20 PagesPassages quoted from the text (with page numbers) Responses (interact with the text through analysis, predictions, evaluation, and connections, but donÃ¢â¬â¢t just summarize) 1. Ã¢â¬Å"On this count, most of the men in the room could rest easy. They had personal trainers, gym memberships, and enough nutritional awareness to avoid diets that were heavy in the foods they manufacturedÃ¢â¬ (11). This just confirms a horrible truth: the food companies are very much aware of the lack of nutritional value in theirRead MoreBmw in China: from Entry to Dominance Essay5395 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pages The four largest sales markets for BMW are China, Germany, the US, and the U.K. In the most recent 2012 first quarter sales report, BMW stated that the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s China sales have increased 30% year-on-year and monthly sales numbers have already eclipsed that of the US, BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest market. BMWÃ¢â¬â¢s 2012 first quarter profits rose by 18% and BMW recognizes its China market as one of its main priorities for the future stability and profitability of the company. For more information on the autoRead MoreSamsung Marketing11795 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pages12 Samsung Annual Report 2002. 13 A Nokia cell phone was featured in the original Matrix movie. No tC After the successful launch of the DigitAll campaign, Samsung took its branding activities to the next level by launching a comarketing campaign with the Warner Brothers blockbuster movie The Matrix Reloaded, a science fiction thriller that opened in May 2003. A Samsung phone played a key role in the movie as the gateway between the physical and virtual worlds.13 Samsung arranged to produce theRead MoreA Brief Analysis on Sexism in English5522 Words Ã |Ã 23 PagesA Brief Analysis on Sexism in English Abstract Sexism is engrained in the language people speak all over the world. English, one of the most popular languages in the world is no exception. The phenomenon of sexism is not only a linguistic one, but basically, a social issue that is far more notice-worthy than the public would have thought. Demonstrations of Sexism in English are too numerous to be totally covered. This paper illustrates demonstrations from the viewpoints of word-structure,Read MoreWho Are You Calling Old? Negotiating Old Age Identity in the Elderly Consumption Ensemble Michelle Barnhart Ãâ¬Ã º Lisa Penaloza18943 Words Ã |Ã 76 Pagesomission. In 2003, fewer than 3% of Ã¯ ¬ ctional characters depicted on television were over age 65 (Vesperi 2004). It will be interesting to see whether the strong, charismatic characters played by Betty White in Hot in Cleveland and Clint Eastwood in the movie Gran Torino become more common as more baby boomers become senior citizens. Gergen and Gergen (2000) have argued that t he Ã¢â¬Å"dark agesÃ¢â¬ of aging are coming to an end and that America is now entering a new era of Ã¢â¬Å"positive aging,Ã¢â¬ in which older people
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
The Bottom Billion by Paul Collier discusses why the poorest countries are failing and then offers some insights and solutions to the problem. He says the four major problems in developing nations are: conflict, natural resources, bad neighbors, and bad governments. The conflicts are usually civil wars which have huge costs and the situation just becomes worse the longer the conflicts drag on. Collier states that countries rich in natural resources are often worse off than countries that are not, he attributes this problem to several different factors. One of the factors is that the resources open the possibility for conflict over the resources. Another factor is that if a country strictly focuses itÃ¢â¬â¢s on a specific natural resource then the other resources and industries might get forgotten and lose value. Being landlocked with bad neighbors can also be a large problem because it makes it almost impossible to be a part of world trade, so these landlocked countries have to d epend on their neighbors for most of the trade and materials. A bad government can also be very destructive to a countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, if they create unreasonable and restrictive policies. The smaller countries are also at a disadvantage because it is hard for them to get any investors, because the investors would much rather invest in well-known countries like India or China. After Collier stated all the problems he also offered up some possible solutions. He believed that aid agencies should concentrate
Friday, May 15, 2020
The Romantic Period of literature took place roughly 200 years ago, but examples of Romanticism can still be seen today. The Romantic authors most certainly had an impact on many artists to come. Edgar Allan Poe is often a name that comes to mind when discussing Romanticism and especially Dark Romanticism and for good reason. Poe exemplifies Romanticism and many examples can be seen in his work, such as the House of Usher. Some traits of Romanticism include high drama, pathetic fallacy, and shocking climax, which are a few pillars of the Romanticism style. These pillars still hold up in modern day art, with many filmmakers, such as M. Night Shyamalan who also exemplifies traits such as high drama, pathetic fallacy, and black and white characters. Edgar Allen Poe was an American author who wrote many short stories and poetry that has glorified him as a master of horror, suspense, psychological thriller, and romanticism. One of his works that embodies such pillars of Romanticism is the Fall of the House of Usher. In this story, Poe embraces pathetic fallacy from the very beginning. He talks about how gloomy and mysterious the house is - which is also a house from his childhood. He sets the stage with the following quote: Ã¢â¬Å"DURING the whole of a dull, dark, and soundless day in the autumn of the year, when the clouds hung oppressively low in the heavens, I had been passing alone, on horseback, through a singularly dreary tract of country ; and at length found myself, as theShow MoreRelatedThe Romantic Period Of British Literature1536 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesIn British Literature, there are many poets and authors who left a mark in history and helped shaped the time period each one was born and lived in. In all three eras, the Romantic, the Victorian, and The Contemporary or Modern, all the poets visited different themes throughout their work such as religion, spirituality, nature, imagination, and love. A very important and prevalent theme is love, which all poets of each time period express in many different ways. Love in British Literature is much moreRead MoreRomantic Period of Literature in America Essay949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAmerican authors and poets alike began the great shift in writing now known as the romantic period. This movement in literature has many influences, themes, and writing styles that can be highlighted with important works and authors. A promising frontier, new cultures brought by immigration, and a search for spiritual answers were all key influences in bringing about the romantic movement. Themes of the romantic period include nature as a refuge, high imagination, and emotional intensity. All ofRead MoreThe Concept of the Individual in Literature of the Romantic Period17 62 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesexplore how the newly important concept of the individual in literature of the Romantic period influenced the genre, and in particular how this was a response to the rationalization of nature and neglect of the individual upheld by the Enlightenment Movement. In order to demonstrate this, a close analysis of some poetic works by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, William Wordsworth and William Blake will be examined. The Romantic period placed great importance on creativity, imagination and the valueRead MoreThe Fire Side Poets from the Romantic Period of Literature Appreciate Nature586 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesThe Romantic period in American Literature dates from 1800-1860. It was a time where people were trying to find a distinctive voice. The Romantic period included letters, poems, essays, books, and art. Most of the authors focused on feelings, which is why its called the Ã¢â¬Å"RomanticÃ¢â¬ period. The authors can be put into four different groups, The fire side poets, The Transcendentalist, American Gothic, and The Early Romantics. The fire side authors had an appreciation for nature. Poems were readRead MoreEssay on Mmmmmmmm734 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesMaterial The Romantic Period The following assignment options provide opportunities for you to explore the ways in which writers of the Romantic period (1785Ã¢â¬â1830) influenced their own society as well as our modern culture. Select and complete one of the following assignments: Option 1: The Response of the Romantics in Their Time Option 2: Romantics of Our Time Option 3: Ask a Romantic Option 1: The Response of the Romantics in Their Time Literature does not occurRead MoreThe Renaissance And Romanticism During The 19th Century1245 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageswere periods of history in which literature changed the mindset of the people. The Renaissance occurred in Britain during the late fifteenth century to the early seventeenth century, and was a response to the Medieval Age. There was a spike in learning during the Renaissance, because of the invention of the printing press and the return of classical Greek and Roman literature. The Romantic period occurred during the late eighteenth century, as a response to the Enlightenment. The Romantics believedRead MoreCharacteristics Of Victorian Literature1437 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Are the Victorians Romantics? Characteristics of Victorian literature are largely artists that are inspired by both the art that came before them and the event that occurred during the time that they were working. Victorian literature is largely characterized by the struggle of working people and the triumph of right over wrong, which do in part can be hard to decipher at times. This means that a piece of work can seem Victoria, but may not have been written in the Victorian era, or something canRead MoreInfluences of the Romantic Period1575 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInfluences on the Romantic Period Romanticism spawned in the late 18th century and flourished in the early and mid-19th century. Romanticism emphasized the irrational, the imaginative, the personal, the spontaneous, the emotional, the visionary, the transcendental, and the individual. Romanticism is often viewed as a rejection of the ideologies of Classicism and Neoclassicisms, namely calm, order, harmony, idealization, rationality and balance. Some characteristics of Romanticism include: emotionRead MoreRomanticism in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell by William Blake1393 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWilliam Blakes Poem William Blake was a poet, painter, and a printmaker all during the period in literature known as the Romantic time period. The Romantic time period, also known in Literature as Romanticism began in Europe, mainly France and Britain around the 1800s (Barker) and it was first defined as a tool to in literature and literary criticisms (Galitz). The Romantic period did not just focus on literature, but also on the subjects of art and knowledge which was fueled by the French RevolutionRead MoreA Poem from the Romantic Period, La Belle Dame sans Merci by John Keats711 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages19th century, near the end of what is known as the Romantic period. This time wasnt just about love stories; it was a social and political movement as well as a literary one. The Romantic period in literature was reacting to the 18th century obsession with distinct order, rationality, and a quest for scientific precision known as the Enlightenment. The writers during the Romantic period felt that these thinkers from the Enlightenment period didnÃ¢â¬â¢t understand what it meant to be human. These writers
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.Ã¢â¬ Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) said this famous quote at his first inaugural address, when he took one of the most important jobs in the world, becoming the president of the United States. He then went on to do what no other president had done beforeÃ¢â¬â¢be elected for more than two terms. The people elected Franklin for four consecutive terms during one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s hardest times, and he and his wife helped pull the nation to its feet. This period of World War II is captured in the biography No Ordinary Time: Franklin Eleanor Roosevelt: The Home Front in World War II by Doris Kearns Goodwin. The author uses countless interviews to piece together the perspective of the home front fromÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦However, RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s support and vitality to the nation in the time of peril won him a third term in 1940, despite criticism by isolationists and the risky move to initiate the first peaceti me draft in United States history. After receiving a very important letter from Winston Churchill concerning American aid and dreaming of an ingenious solution, Roosevelt called for America to become the Ã¢â¬Å"arsenal for democracyÃ¢â¬ (Goodwin 195), and emphasized the lend-lease program as an alternative to war. At the end of 1941, Congress was painfully slow to set up defense against the Axis, but FDR insightfully waited for the right moment. On December 7, the Japanese launched a massive surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, and Roosevelt did exactly what the people wantedÃ¢â¬â¢he declared war on the Axis powers and ramped up war production. Through the progression of the war, Roosevelt was on good terms with Stalin, however he became fantastic friends with Churchill. Occasionally, Franklin took business trips around the country to the various auto manufacturers that had been converted to production lines for the war effort. He knew his visits boosted productivity as well as mor ale, so he enjoyed them, especially when workers shouted his name with glee. Late in 1942, civilian support for the war dropped with a decrease in morale. Franklin knew just the right move, and launched an invasion of North Africa thatShow MoreRelatedNo Ordinary Time By Doris Kearns Goodwin1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesDoris Kearns GoodwinÃ¢â¬â¢s biographical novel delves deep into the personal lives of the Roosevelts. From their meetings with world leaders to problems in their marriage concerning infidelity, nothing is left unsaid. The historical novel starts with Roosevelt sitting in his bedroom, contemplating the end of the phony war that occurred before the official beginning of World War II. The novel continues with Franklin Delano RooseveltÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to aid overseas Allies while trying to prepare his own countryRead MoreEleanor Roosevelt s Life Of Wealth And Privilege1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¢â¬Å"Plain, ordinary Mrs. RooseveltÃ¢â¬ Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 in New York City to socialites Elliot Bulloch Roosevelt and Anna Rebecca Hall. She was born into a world of immense wealth and privilege that she didnÃ¢â¬â¢t really fit into or understand. Her mother died in 1892 and after a long battle with alcoholism, her father leapt to his death from a sanitarium window in 1894. After so much death at a young age, Eleanor was prone to bouts of melancholy and depression throughout her life. AfterRead MoreWar and the Centralization of Power Essays2049 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesand education were substantialÃ¢â¬ (Trattner 89). President Abraham Lincoln would come under fire for many of his war time policies, the biggest: Emancipation Proclamation and the suspension writ of habeas corpus. Although arguably justified, these acts gave President Lincoln the name of tyrant for these powers were not explicitly laid out in the Constitution (Goodwin 355). During this time of war, President Lincoln assumed multiple Ã¢â¬Å"war powersÃ¢â¬ as commander in chief, in doing so he began to define theRead MoreThe Heroes Of Abraham Lincoln2389 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesLiterature B4 4/27/2015 American Hero Many admire presidents as their heroes for the great power they possess. However, in my opinion, a hero is built by his or her characteristics. Abraham Lincoln was known to be a shining star in American History at time of darkness. He was courageous; when segregation, slavery, racism dominated the social trend it was him that pushed against all the odds and united the nation. He was confident; when facing military disadvantages and doubts from his own generals, it
George W. Bush once said Ã¢â¬Å"America is the land of the second chance and when the gates of the prison open, the path ahead should lead to better life.Ã¢â¬Å" The concept of his quote was pure, wholesome and is viewed as truth about the persona of America, but is this quote realistic? Realistic in some pointÃ¢â¬â¢s because the path after prison should lead to better life. When you analyze the part that says Ã¢â¬Å"land of second chances,Ã¢â¬ that phrase in a lot of cases doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t exactly fit this country in some ways. Are men and women who are released from prison actually given a second chance at life or do they face extreme difficulty trying to live the American dream that is advertised as the milestone of living? Prison life forces individuals to change theirÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦That doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t mean an ex-con canÃ¢â¬â¢t make it to the top of that mountain. Once released from prison, what are the first things that ex-cons have to do? They make time to go devour a nice meal since they spent years eating that horrendous prison food, maybe hook up with their significant other since they havenÃ¢â¬â¢t had sexual relations in a long time with the opposite sex or sex in general. When that is all over with the now released convict has to find a job. The path to a successful life after prison starts with how one would obtain money so they are less tempted to go back to their old ways. Trying to obtain a decent job is a must because with constant work and constant flow of money from their occupation, this will keep them busy and their thoughts away from the streets so they donÃ¢â¬â¢t think about what they could rather be doing. Acquiring a job though isnÃ¢â¬â¢t easy as it once was in the earlier years. According to the United States Bureau of Labor statistics showed that Ã¢â¬Å"in the year of 2010 the unemployment rate was at a high of 9.8% In the United States but back in 1989 that rate was about 5.4% and if you go back even furthe r to 1953 the unemployment rate was 2.9% (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2014).Ã¢â¬ The increase in population of the country contributed to rate rising because with more people looking for jobs and there isnÃ¢â¬â¢t an
With this thought provoking essay, Tannen exposes the dangers of continuing this confrontational style of public discourse and suggests a more thoughtful and compromising approach to solve problems. Although Tannens article was written in 1994, her argument is just as pertinent today. She bemoans that public discourse has devolved into a theater filled with name-calling, labeling opponents and focusing on trivial or sometimes made up claims in order to score points. She states that this problem is perpetuated by journalists, academics and politicians who have turned serious public discourse into fights where theatrics are more important than the gist and solution because they make for better ratings. Her observation of the quarrelsome nature of public discourse is correct because we witness it daily but fail to recognize its futility. A glaring example is the way the budget crisis is being handled in Washington. Politicians and commentators are resorting to lying, fear mongering and misrepresentation and they are adopting untenable positions with no serious effort at compromise. We will write a custom essay sample on Triumph of the Yell or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Furthermore, complex matters relating to war, the economy, religion and public policy are reduced to sound bites, devoid of critical thinking and collective intellectual exertion. This fact can be easily demonstrated Ã¢â¬â one has to merely tune in to Fox News or MSNBC and see the vitriol and abrasive nature of the treatment of issues. According to Tannen, the pervasive culture of critique incites one to claim victory by scoring points and making others look bad. However, in reality, winning should be a team effort where society at large benefits because the solution is derived after careful exploration of all sides of an issue. The arguments we have today are making us lose sight of what is important and are diverting us from the truth. Tannen argues that it is a misinterpretation that every issue must have only two sides. The culture of critique treats public discourse as a fight which is a contest of opposites- pros and cons, right or wrong, for or against, winner or loser. This limits open-mindedness and forces the sides to take extreme positions. I agree with Tannen that truth is found in many faces of a crystal. No issue is just black and white but rather it is multifaceted; therefore, public discourse should reflect that. However, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, complex issues are reduced to black and white with opposing sides taking extreme positions while ignoring the middle ground. This kind of public discourse is not effective in problem solving. Moreover, as Tannen states, it has the undesirable effect of turning people against each other and dividing the nation instead of bringing them together to solve the problem. The culture of critique is indeed Ã¢â¬Å"stiflingÃ¢â¬ us, as Tannen puts it, and is leading us away from the truth. Political leaders and commentators must set the proper tone to rectify this problem. Tannen states that although Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦critique is surely one form of critical thinking, so are integrating ideas from disparate fields and examining the context out of which they grewÃ¢â¬ (3). Most issues require that we make compromises to reach a favorable conclusion. Therefore, we should heed TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s highly rational conclusion and proposal to seek the strengths, rather than the weaknesses, in the other sideÃ¢â¬â¢s arguments which would alleviate the atmosphere of animosity. TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s skillful use of examples and facts add depth and clarity to the complex subject. Throughout the essay, Tannen makes rational and logical arguments about the adversities of public discourse in todays society and backs them up with clear facts and evidence. To support her thesis that public discourse has lost civility, she provides several examples. Tannen questions the motives of a journalist who resorts to Ã¢â¬Å"vitriolic attacksÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"winÃ¢â¬ an argument. She exemplifies this further by recalling her first-hand experience with the dishonest television show participant who confesses in private his liking of her book and then proceeds to launch a vicious attack on her on live TV. She also provides an example of a student who abandons her dream to pursue academia after experiencing its combative and personal nature. Tannen argues that the culture of critique encourages misrepresentations. She illustrates this point with the example of the Holocaust; scholars had to waste their time and creativity proving that it had happened because of some fanatics who claimed otherwise. She also uses this example to illustrate that Ã¢â¬Å"the determination to find another side can spread disinformation rather than lead to truthÃ¢â¬ (Tannen 2). Tannen also enhances her credibility by using ssertions from experts such as psychologist Paul Ekman, as needed, to strengthen her arguments. TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s use of examples to illustrate her points makes it easy for the reader to sympathize with her views. Deborah Tannens style of writing is remarkably persuasive, insightful and smooth. It is devoid of unnecessary emotion although one can sense that she is substantially affected by this subject and concerned about its impact on society. TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s essay is concise. Her diction is clear, formal and concrete. She relies on illustrative examples to clarify her message. Her literary pictures allow the reader to visualize her claims. Her line of reasoning is extremely logical, and the points she brings up add a lot of depth to the topic. Her essay applies deductive reasoning and adheres to the universal intellectual standards in an effort to make the people open minded and rational. Tannen displays the characteristics of a critical thinker by pointing out the flaws in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s thinking. She induces the reader to pause to do some critical thinking of their own. TannenÃ¢â¬â¢s masterful use of anecdotes and introduction to new ideas creates a compelling argument for the reader and brings uniqueness to her piece. Although Tannen is successful in stating her claims, she does not provide the perspective of those who contradict her position and in that respect her essay lacks breadth. A rebuttal of the opposing viewpoint would have strengthened her case. One may argue that disagreeing and pointing out the weaknesses in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s logic does, in fact, lead to truths and help advance the argument. Her article would have been more complete and effective if she had included a discussion of the proponents of the current nature of public discourse. With The Triumph of The Yell, Deborah Tannen has produced a piece that is worthy of reflection. It has the noble objective of elevating public discourse to a higher intellectual level to solve problems while seeking to bring people together for a common cause. Her writing style is persuasive, and her arguments are highly logical. She clarifies her reasoning by providing examples for the reader. Her use of illustrative examples typifies the universal intellectual standards of clarity, accuracy, depth and logic. All in all, The Triumph of the Yell by Deborah Tannen is a well-written piece that deserves its due recognition.